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The CJIS Division was established in February 1992 to serve as the focal point and central repository for criminal justice information services in the FBI. It is the largest division in the FBI. Programs initially consolidated under the CJIS Division included the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR), and Fingerprint Identification. In addition, responsibility for several ongoing technological initiatives was transferred to the CJIS Division, including the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), NCIC 2000, and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). From this, many states have adopted their own CJIS and today, there is a nationwide CJIS network that exchange data freely between the states and federal government. At the CJIS Division of the FBI statisticians are compiling vast amounts of data from law enforcement into a series of regular reports detailing the state of crime in communities across the country.
Each state also has their own Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) which acts as the central repository of criminal history records and provides criminal identification screening to criminal justice and non-criminal justice agencies and private citizens to identify persons with criminal warrants, arrests and convictions that impact employment, licensing, eligibility to purchase a firearm, as well as a variety of criminal justice functions. The state CJIS provides a clearinghouse of missing and endangered persons to assist law enforcement and the public in recovering missing children and adults, and provides information to criminal justice agencies and the public on career offenders, sexual offenders and predators. Additionally, the individual state CJIS provide statistical information regarding crime for use by policy-makers and that is of interest to the public, including the compilation of Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and Hate Crime information collected from local law enforcement agencies. State CJIS help ensure the quality of the data available and play a major role in the development of policy for national sharing of criminal justice information with the FBI and other states.
Benefits of CJIS
By integrating systems at the federal, state and local levels law enforcement organizations improve the quality of information, and thereby the quality of decisions, by eliminating error-prone redundant data entry. In addition, by sharing data between systems, integration typically improves the timely access to information, a critical factor at many justice decision points (for example, setting bail). Moreover, integration enables the sharing of crucial information without regard to time or space; multiple users can access the same records simultaneously from remote locations around the clock. Integration also substantially improves the consistency and reliability of information, and enables immediate access by key decision makers.
Errors in justice information can be greatly reduced by eliminating redundant data entry, which not only results in lower labor costs, but also significantly improves the quality of justice — an intangible that too often is measured by the size of civil suits resulting from improper confinement, improper release or other errors traceable to poor data quality or untimely access to critical information. In brief, the following benefits would be realized via a national network of CJIS.
As detailed in section 7.02 of the FBI Security Addendum below, biometrics is a recognized tool for insuring that only the proper individuals are accessing and using the CJIS system.
7.02 The system shall include the following technical security measures: (DPS expectation: These technical security measures will be documented in the required Security Plan and are a shared responsibility of the CJA/CGA/Contractor. See CJIS Security Policy for minimum requirements.)
a. unique identification and authentication for all interactive sessions;
b. if warranted by the nature of the contract, advanced authentication techniques in the form of digital signatures and certificates, biometric or encryption for remote communications;
c. security audit capability for interactive sessions and transaction based logging for message-based sessions; this audit shall be enabled at the system and application level;
d. access control mechanisms to enable access to be restricted by object (e.g., data set, volumes, files, records) to include the ability to read, write, or delete the objects;
e. ORI identification and access control restrictions for message based access;
f. system and data integrity controls;
g. access controls on communications devices;
h. confidentiality controls (e.g., partitioned drives, encryption, and object reuse).